Axiology is a philosophical self-discipline that examines the class of values because the semantic bases of human existence that set the path and motivation of human life. Axiology research the traits, buildings and hierarchies of the worth world, the methods of its cognition and its ontological standing, in addition to the character and specificity of worth judgments. It additionally consists of the examine of the worth features of different philosophical, in addition to particular person scientific disciplines, and in a broader sense – the entire vary of social, creative and non secular practices, human civilization and tradition on the whole.
Axiology poses the query of the connection between worth and analysis. That is the central drawback of the speculation of information, ethics and aesthetics. Recognition of the worth of fact, good will and sweetness doesn’t result in the identification of worth with items, and valuations – with values. Between the transcendental worth and analysis because the which means of human exercise there isn’t a full coincidence. Values give which means to human actions. A basic contradiction of axiology is the popularity in some ideas of the universalism of values, the presence of transcendental values and the denial of this in ideas that adhere to an empirical and pluralistic interpretation of values.
Phases of growth of axiology
Within the historical past of the philosophical growth of the worth issues, a number of intervals are singled out. Starting with Antiquity, one can communicate of appeals to it primarily of a “contextual nature.” On the identical time, neither the class of worth, nor the worth world, nor worth judgments are but a topic of specialised philosophical reflection. Solely from the second half of the XIX century, this problematic turns into one of many philosophical priorities of European tradition.
The isolation and structure of the subject material of axiology as an unbiased discipline of philosophical reflection was related:
- with a revision of the rationale for ethics (wherein being was recognized with the nice) by I. Kant, who opposed the sphere of morality, that’s, freedom, to the sphere of nature, that’s, necessity, which required a transparent delineation of what was due and what was;
- with the splitting of the idea of being in post-Hegelian philosophy, which is split into the “actualized actual” and “desired and due”, a mirrored image on these theoretical-methodological and practical-action penalties that adopted from the thesis of the identification of being and considering;
- with the attention of the necessity to restrict the mental claims of philosophy and science, that cognition shouldn’t be the area of their monopoly and domination, but additionally that it’s also linked by complicated relationships with the path of the human will (for which the criterial discrimination of fact and never fact is certainly not the one not at all times figuring out amongst different standards: good – evil, stunning – ugly, helpful – dangerous, and so forth);
- with the invention of non-elimination from cognition of the analysis second, totally different modalities and (later) forms of group of considering exercise (logic, anthropology, linguistics, semantics and others, which can be related to a brand new flip within the growth of axiology);
- with the questioning of probably the most primary values of Christian civilization within the ideas of A. Schopenhauer, S. Kierkegaard, V. Dilthey and others, however above all with the “open problem” to them thrown by F. Nietzsche;
- with the attention, then again, of the impossibility of decreasing the idea of worth to “good” (the custom coming from Plato) or its understanding as “worth”, financial worth (custom, established in classical political economic system, considerably rethought by K. Marx in “Capital” and laid then the idea of Marxist axiology, being mixed with the developments of early Marx and different axiological theories).
Thus, axiology is constituted as a philosophical self-discipline in particular historic situations of the philosophical and mental lifetime of Europe, characterised by the exhaustion of impulses given by the Enlightenment, the attention (reasonably, a premonition) of the epoch’s change and the necessity to change the event vector. In philosophy, this resulted within the need to attract a line beneath the classical stage of its growth, which, specifically, started to be mounted and terminologically within the definition of instructions and colleges as “neo” philosophies (Neo-Kantianism, Neo-Hegelianism, and many others.), however significant (aside from the whole lot else – change issues, stylistics and so forth) was expressed, amongst different issues, within the pluralization of strategies of philosophizing, the era of many various axiologically oriented traditions.