Users' questions

How is HTLV-1 transmitted?

How is HTLV-1 transmitted?

Transmission of HTLV-I occurs from mother to child (18), by sexual contact (19), by blood transfusion (20), and by sharing contaminated needles.

What is the outcome of HTLV-1 infection?

The virus can cause adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) and progressive nervous system condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The current best estimates for the total number of people living with HTLV-1 infection range from 5 million to 10 million.

What causes HTLV-1 virus?

Human T- cell leukemia virus , type 1 (HTLV-1) occurs when a person is infected by the human T-cell leukemia retrovirus . HTLV-1 is spread by blood transfusions, sexual contact and sharing needles. It can also be spread from mother to child during birth or breast-feeding.

What kind of disease can HTLV-1 cause?

The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. It was first studied in 1977. The virus can cause adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) and progressive nervous system condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

How is HTLV-1 passed from mother to child?

Mothers can pass the virus to children through breastfeeding, and there is limited evidence of transmission before or during birth. The estimated mother to child transmission rate has ranged from 3.9% to 27%. HTLV-1 has been detected in cervical secretions and semen.

Is the HTLV-I virus the same as AIDS?

HTLV-I is a distant relative of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) , which cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HTLV-I does not cause AIDS. Like other retroviruses, HTLV-I is a blood-borne virus.

When was HTLV 1 and 2 first identified?

During the 1980s and early 1990s, there was considerable interest in the seroepidemiology of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2.

Is the HTLV virus related to AIDS or AIDS?

Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus (HTLV) HTLV is similar to HIV, another virus, but HTLV doesn’t cause AIDS. The type of HTLV related to cancer is human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Once infected with HTLV-1, a person has the infection for life. There is no treatment to get rid of the virus once you are infected.

How is HTLV-1 transmitted from mother to infant?

The human T-cell leukemia virus type-1, or HTLV-1, is a retrovirus that infects white blood cells known as T-cells and is usually transmitted in a similar manner to HIV-1 through a person’s blood or body fluid. Infected cells present within breast milk can also pass HTLV-1 from mother to infant through breastfeeding.

Can a person with HTLV 1 go on to get active disease?

Healthcare practitioners should use caution when handling sharp instruments or handling bodily secretions from an infected person. The great majority people who test positive for the HTLV-1 virus do not go on to get active disease; these individuals are called carriers. Who gets HAM/TSP, and when?

How does the HTLV 1 virus affect the spinal cord?

The great majority of individuals infected with the HTLV-1 virus will never exhibit signs or symptoms of disease. However, in some people who are infected with the HTLV-1 virus, inflammation (swelling) occurs in the spinal cord; the immune system’s attack on the virus involves sending cells called lymphocytes to the affected area.