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Why are cancer cells heterogeneous?

Why are cancer cells heterogeneous?

Tumour cells can also show heterogeneity between their expression profiles. This is often caused by underlying epigenetic changes. Variation in expression signatures have been detected in different regions of tumour samples within an individual.

Where are the abnormal findings on an MRI?

Above the disc is the L3 vertebral body and below the disc is the L4 vertebral body. The center of the disc, the annulus pulpous is relatively white. The front and back of the disc, the annulus fibrosis is dark black, thick, and is not bulging into the spinal canal.

How big is a central disc protusion on a MRI?

At the T12-L1 level there is a central disc protusion which measures 6mm in lateral dimension, 4 mm in AP dimension and 6 mm in craniocaudal dimension. There is no significant canal or neuroforaminal stenosis from this lesion.

How many intervertebral discs are normal on a MRI?

This is an MRI scan of a 40 year old male. There are 5 intervertebral discs in the lumbar spine. We are going to start with a normal level which has a normal intervertebral disc. Each disc separates two bones called vertebrae in the spine. In this case, this is the L3-4 disc.

Where are the diffuse disc bulges on the MRI?

Minimal diffuse disc bulges are identified at T6-T7 and T10-T11. there is no canal stenosis associated with these lesions. Disc protrusion identifed at T12-L1 without significant canal stenosis. Large disc extrusion identified at L4-L5, causing severe canal stenosis.

This is an MRI scan of a 40 year old male. There are 5 intervertebral discs in the lumbar spine. We are going to start with a normal level which has a normal intervertebral disc. Each disc separates two bones called vertebrae in the spine. In this case, this is the L3-4 disc.

Above the disc is the L3 vertebral body and below the disc is the L4 vertebral body. The center of the disc, the annulus pulpous is relatively white. The front and back of the disc, the annulus fibrosis is dark black, thick, and is not bulging into the spinal canal.

At the T12-L1 level there is a central disc protusion which measures 6mm in lateral dimension, 4 mm in AP dimension and 6 mm in craniocaudal dimension. There is no significant canal or neuroforaminal stenosis from this lesion.

Minimal diffuse disc bulges are identified at T6-T7 and T10-T11. there is no canal stenosis associated with these lesions. Disc protrusion identifed at T12-L1 without significant canal stenosis. Large disc extrusion identified at L4-L5, causing severe canal stenosis.